Menu costs in economics are those costs that firms incur when they change their prices, and at times of high inflation they can be significant because the frequency of changes will need to be higher. The name originates from the cost of changing menu prices at restaurants, but there are many other industries that are affected.
I should point out here that the real interest in menu costs relates to its influence on the presence or absence of sticky prices in the economy. That, in turn, relates to a difference of perspective between Keynesian economists and classical economists, because it has implications for a free-market economy's ability to self-correct in the short-run.
If the Keynesians are correct and menu costs are significant, they will cause price-rigidity in the short-run which will prolong disequilibrium in the economy. This, they argue, justifies intervention via demand-management policies. If, on the other hand, the classical economists are correct, any menu costs are not significant enough to justify intervention.
In this article I will explore the economics of menu costs and look at the limited research that is available regarding their significance. I will give particular focus to the food industry, since restaurants and food retailers are among the most affected industries.
Menu costs in economics encompass all the expenses associated with creating, updating, and printing menus. While these costs may seem trivial at first glance, they can have a significant impact on a business's profitability.
One aspect of menu costs in the restaurant business is design and layout of the menu itself. A well-designed menu can influence customers' perception of the value of the dishes, leading to higher sales and increased profitability. On the other hand, a poorly designed menu can confuse customers and discourage them from ordering, resulting in lost revenue. Menu design also plays a role in the operational efficiency of a restaurant, as a poorly organized menu can lead to delays in order taking and longer customer wait times.
Another aspect of menu costs is the cost of ingredients. The prices of ingredients can fluctuate due to various factors such as seasonality, availability, and market trends. Restaurants must carefully analyze ingredient costs and adjust their menu prices accordingly in order to maintain profitability.
Lastly, menu costs also include the cost of updating and reprinting menus. Restaurants often need to update their menus to reflect changes in ingredient prices, introduce new dishes, or respond to customer preferences. However, these updates come at a cost, both in terms of time and money. Balancing the need for frequent updates with the associated costs is crucial for maintaining profitability.
To better understand the impact of menu costs on profitability, let's explore a few case studies from different industries.
A high-end, fine dining restaurant with an extensive menu faces significant menu costs. The restaurant invests in luxurious menu designs, high-quality printing materials, and regular updates to reflect seasonal ingredients and new creations. While the explicit costs associated with these efforts are substantial, the implicit costs are equally important. The restaurant must carefully consider the potential revenue lost if certain dishes are priced too high or if popular items are removed from the menu.
To manage these costs, the restaurant employs a combination of pricing strategies. They carefully analyze ingredient costs and adjust menu prices accordingly to maintain profitability. The restaurant also invests in marketing efforts to create a perception of value and differentiate themselves from competitors. By consistently delivering exceptional dining experiences, they justify their premium prices and attract customers who are willing to pay for the elevated experience.
A fast-food chain with locations across the country faces different menu cost challenges. While their menu designs may be less elaborate, the chain must print and distribute menus in large quantities. The explicit costs associated with menu printing and updates could be substantial, which is why fast-food chains typically opt out of large printed menus.
To mitigate the costs, the fast-food chain leverages technology. They invest in digital menu boards that can be easily updated remotely, eliminating the need for physical printing and distribution. This not only reduces menu costs but also allows for more dynamic pricing strategies, such as offering limited-time promotions or adjusting prices based on demand.
Technology has revolutionized the food industry in many ways, including reducing menu costs. The advent of digital solutions and online platforms has provided restaurants with new opportunities to streamline operations, optimize pricing strategies, and reduce the expenses associated with traditional menu printing.
Digital menu boards have become increasingly popular, allowing restaurants to update their menus in real-time and display dynamic content. This eliminates the need for frequent menu reprints and reduces waste. Additionally, digital menu boards can be customized to showcase daily specials, promotions, and seasonal offerings, maximizing revenue potential.
Online menu platforms offer another avenue for cost savings. By hosting menus online, restaurants can reach a wider audience while reducing printing and distribution costs. Online menus can be easily updated, ensuring that customers always have access to the most current offerings and prices.
Furthermore, technology enables restaurants to collect and analyze customer data, providing valuable insights into preferences, ordering patterns, and price sensitivities. Armed with this information, restaurants can make data-driven decisions about menu design, pricing, and promotional strategies to optimize profitability.
In the case of the restaurant industry, menu costs are at their most significant. In the sections above I have explained how these costs manifest and how they influence business profitability. It is clear that in the case of a small fine dining restaurant the costs do have a great deal of significance. This is particularly true given the highly competitive nature of the industry.
However, modern technology is making menu costs a smaller and smaller concern in most of the restaurant industry, and in most other industries it is difficult to imagine that these costs are not even less significant.
Only in times of high inflation, especially hyperinflation, are menu costs likely to still be significant. At any other time, these costs are so small relative to overall costs that it seems unreasonable to use them as a justification for short-term economic intervention.
Any price-rigidity due to menu costs, especially during times of high inflation, is likely to be minimal since the lost profits of sub-optimal pricing will very quickly outweigh the costs of creating new menus. High inflation and price-rigidity are mutually exclusive, and so there is little justification for Keynesian demand management on the grounds of sticky menu costs in the economy.
With that said, there is little research available to give conclusive evidence one way or another, and so the debate as to the relevance of menu costs rages on.
Via the PDF link below, the research by Daniel Levy et al argues that menu costs for large supermarket chains are indeed significant, but it is difficult to extend this analysis to the broader economy e.g., the oil industry, where menu costs do not exist in any significant way.